Thursday, October 19, 2017

Where Are the Senior Project Guidelines?

See the screenshot below to navigate to the Senior Project page (it's a page, not a post) on my blog, where you'll find a link to the website with all the guidelines, a "Senior Projects At-A-Glance" diagram, and a copy of the "Senior Projects Calendar." 

Note that this is a page, accessible through the page tabs at the top of my blog; it's not a post.

Saturday, August 26, 2017

Seniors, Read This!

["Read This" is a series of short posts containing links to good articles that I think my students need to read. If you come across an article that you think should be included in this series, let me know!]

Welcome to the 2017-2018 school year! 

To start the year, I want all seniors to read this poem by Sherman Alexie. Students in English 12 will soon be reading a novel by Alexie, but his poem is also relevant for seniors in AP Lit. 

AP Lit students should read this article in addition to the poem, as it makes reference to the first novel they will read.

Everybody should read this article about smartphones, and you'll want to read this blog post that I wrote a couple years ago, as it contains your first blogging assignment (we'll spend some time in class soon getting you started on that assignment--just start brainstorming ideas for it now).

One of your next writing assignments will be based on the following links, so start checking them all out now:

Then, afterwards, start thinking about this statement:  Literature is either a mirror that reflects your own image back at you, or a window through which you glimpse a world unlike your own. 
Obviously, I'm including all forms of art and expression, here, and many works of art are both mirrors and windows. This is an idea we'll use throughout the year. 

Friday, May 26, 2017

The Quest For Calypso: A Rare Sight

Ram's-Head Lady Slipper (Cypripedium arietinum), taken
in May 2015, near Bemidji.
Over the last several years, I have been on a quest to see some of the most exotic and rare of Minnesota's wild orchids. On May 20th, I finally spotted one of the rarest of them in full bloom in my favorite bog, the Pennington Bog Scientific and Natural Area

There have always been three orchids at the top of my bucket list:  the Ram's-Head Lady Slipper, the Dragon's Mouth Orchid, and the Calypso Orchid. When I started searching in earnest for these flowers some years ago, I thought it would take me much longer to find all of them. 
Dragon's Mouth Orchid (Arethusa bulbosa), taken
June 2016, in the Pennington Bog.

In my search for the Ram's-Head, I had some help, and you can read about that journey here. I still haven't seen it within the confines of the Pennington Bog, even though it is reported to grow there. 

In 2015, I spotted the Dragon's Mouth Orchid in the Pennington, and I saw even more examples of it there last summer. (I have also seen it in Wisconsin, thanks to tips from Josh Horky.) 

Now, in 2017, I have finally seen my "holy grail," the Calypso Orchid. I found about 25 plants, though I only saw about 15 blossoms. I knew it was listed in the original survey of the Pennington Bog, taken back in the 1970s (thanks to my friend Em W for helping me find the survey), but in the five years that I've been exploring this bog, I have never yet seen it until now. 
Pennington Bog, taken June 2016.

The Pennington Bog is 108 acres of heavily-wooded swampland. It looks like a forest right out of a fairytale, dark and dense, just a little spooky, and the Calypso Orchid is very tiny, growing no higher than 9 inches, with a flower no more than an inch long, so searching for such a small flower in such a relatively large area is very much like looking for the proverbial needle in a haystack. 
Pennington, last weekend, with Calypso Orchids

I've learned some things about orchid-hunting in the last few years. Sometimes, it's easiest to search for the plant or the foliage before you even start looking for the flowers. The Calypso Orchid is unusual, in that its single leaf stays green all winter, persisting under the snow. It dies off after the flower blooms and then sprouts again in the late summer. While the leaf is very small, only an inch or two long, it is very distinctive in appearance, featuring deep pleats along its length, as if it had been folded like a paper fan. I figured that if I started looking early enough in the season, right as the snow was melting, I might be able to spot some leaves, and then later, find the flower.
Calypso leaf, tiny and pleated, visible as the last of
the snow melts. Note the beginnings of a stem!

This strategy proved to be a good one. I started searching for the leaves on April 29. There was still some snow and ice in the bog, and I chose to search a section that I haven't focused on in the past. Because Calypso likes old cedar trees, I decided to focus on the areas around the bases of such trees. I spent five hours crisscrossing and meandering my way through the bog, always heading for cedars, and just as I was about to give up, I spotted two leaves, not far from each other. They were easy to spot against the snow, being even greener than the moss.
Calypso bud against a white handkerchief background,
which helps the iPhone camera lens focus on
something so tiny.

Excitedly, I noted the GPS coordinates (I use a GPS app on my phone), took some photos, and made plans to return in the coming weeks. The next time I visited the bog, I searched for the two plants for which I had coordinates. My $20 GPS app is accurate to about 50 feet, and sometimes it leads me in circles. While I didn't find the original two plants I spotted, I did find, and record coordinates for, some others, and they had buds. 

The Calypso buds are so small that my iPhone 6s camera lens had a lot of trouble focusing on them, especially against the complex background of the forest floor. I've learned to use a white or black handkerchief as a background when I'm photographing tiny flowers, so that helped me get a semi-decent shot or two of the buds. 
Calypso Orchid flower not quite fully open yet.

It's hard to convey just how tiny these orchids are, and how fragile and vulnerable. This bog is protected, and entry is allowed only with a permit, because of the rare and diverse plant life. One has to walk very carefully, checking each step to make sure one is not crushing a flower. 

I did see some Calypso Orchid plants that had been nibbled on, and two flower stems that were bent, perhaps by some hungry deer. I also found a couple flowers that were already past their prime. (Calypso is one of the earliest-blooming orchids in our region.) I took a photo of one of those fading flowers, and had to lift its hanging head to get a good view of it. You can see how tiny it is in relation to my fingers.
Fading Calypso, with flower no bigger than my fingernail.

My two-pronged strategy of searching early in the season and focusing on Cedar trees really paid off. --But there was also a lot of luck involved; after all, I randomly chose to focus on an unfamiliar quarter of the bog.  

In any case, I am very happy to have found the Calypso. I hope to be able to see it bloom for many springs yet to come. 
Pair of Calypso Orchids. 
Yet another pair of Calypsos.
Here, you can see the pleated leaves.
A third pair--here, you get both a top and back view. To the right, you can see the yellow
forked tongue hidden under the flower's lip.
You can really see the pleats in the leaf here. I had to use a diagonal orientation
to fit the entire plant in the frame.

Calypso is an amazingly beautiful and intricate orchid--the deep purple or maroon stripes inside the labellum and the yellow bristles on its tongue combine with its bright purple headdress to make for a dazzling sight. The orchid is pollinated by bumble bee queens, who are attracted to this flower when they emerge from hibernation in the ground. 

Enjoy the photos below--most folks never get to see this orchid!

Tuesday, May 16, 2017

Take-A-Look Tuesday: Spring Wildflower (& Fungi) Report

I haven't done a "Take-A-Look Tuesday" post in a long time, not since 2014, when I did a couple such posts. Nor have I posted any "Spring Wildflower Reports" lately. I managed two in 2015. I hope this post will get me back on track. I always have more ideas and material than time...

I've been hiking the trails of Jay Cooke State Park all spring, watching as the wildflowers sprout, grow, and then bloom. The last couple weekends have been gorgeous, in terms of what's visible. Let's get right to the photos!
Scarlet cup fungus, JCSP
One of the first things I look for is the Scarlet Cup Fungus. Obviously, this is not a wildflower, but it signals the very beginning of Spring for me. It starts growing under the snow, I think. I usually start seeing them in mid-March, but the first ones I saw this year appeared in early April. They're such a welcome burst of bright color in the bleak, dreary early-spring woods. 
A rare double? I haven't seen too many that are fused together like this one.
Along with the Scarlet Cups, I also usually find a fair number of Black Cup fungus, known as Devil's Urn, in the spring. Devil's urn is one of my favorite fungi. I usually find some pretty large ones at Jay Cooke.
Devil's Urn at the base of an old cedar,
Beltrami County.

More Devil's Urn on the floor of a Beltrami County bog.

Large Devil's Urn specimens at Jay Cooke.
Bloodroot sprout.
One of the earliest wildflowers to bloom is Bloodroot. I caught it this year just as it was sprouting up out of the ground. The sprouts look a bit like caterpillars to me. 
Bloodroot colony

The flowers are quite large, a cheerful sight in the spring. The flowers only last a few days, so I always feel lucky when I see them. 

The leaves of the Bloodroot are almost as pretty as the flowers, deeply veined with many lobes.

Close-up of Bloodroot blossom.
Bloodroot colony, with flowers opening up
Macro shot of a Bloodroot bud emerging
from its leafy cocoon.


Another very early flower that I try really hard to catch is Dutchman's Breeches, so named because the flowers look like pants hung on a clothesline. The leaves are quite distinctive, feathery in appearance, with a slightly bluish cast.
One of my best shots of Dutchman's Breeches this year.
Trout Lily with bud
Such lovely leaves
The Trout Lilies are also a great favorite. They get their name from the mottled pattern on their leaves, reminiscent of trout-skin. Jay Cooke is filled with these flowers. 
Trout Lilies amidst a sea of Spring Beauties at Jay Cooke.

Lots of yellow Trouts
Perfect pair

Yellow Trout Lily with bee

The Trout Lilies also come in white, but for some reason, I find the white ones harder to photograph. I haven't yet taken a really good photo of the white ones this year...

The Trout Lilies grow in the same area as the Spring Beauties, a small pink and white striped flower, also found in vast numbers at Jay Cooke. 

Spring Beauties: very small
It wouldn't be a Spring Wildflower Report without a shot or two of Wild Ginger and Trillium, so here are some photos of those old favorites.
Most of the Trilliums I've seen so far haven't opened fully yet.
Wild Ginger's amazing flower rests on the ground.
Jack-in-the-Pulpit, just starting to bloom, Munger Trail.

An older Jack

I was afraid I might miss Jack-in-the-Pulpit this year, but they're just coming up now in our area. They are so much fun to see. 
Looking for Jack inside the Pulpit
If you have time to get out to Jay Cooke in the near future, you should check out all the flowers along Summer Trail. It's a great place to see many of these flowers. During my last two trips there, I've run into other wildflower photographers, some of whom come from the Twin Cities area to see the beautiful array of wildflowers Jay Cooke has to offer.

Monday, April 17, 2017

Helping a Friend Move: An Orchid Rescue Team Adventure

View of the Munger Trail, not far from where 
my friend lived.
On the morning of Saturday, April 15, 2017, my colleague Mr Tom Diener and I helped a friend move. Her house was condemned and her neighborhood slated to be bulldozed, so as to make room for bigger and better things. She had been rather isolated, living on her own, and the heavy traffic through her neighborhood put her at great risk of physical harm, and even of kidnapping. Although I hated to see her leave her birthplace, there was nothing else to be done. She had to move.

My first photo of my friend, taken September, 2012. Seed pods are visible
at the top of her stems.
I first met her back in September of 2012, some months after the big flood that left so much of our region damaged. I was biking along the Willard Munger State Trail--the parts of it that were passable--and I saw her:  tall, dressed in pale brownish rags, more than a little past her prime. She was standing just off the edge of the Trail, at the base of a wooded slope near the high rock walls that tower over the trail along portions of the Duluth section. 

I might have missed her, if I hadn’t already had such Ladies on my mind. As you can see, I’m not talking about a person but a flower, and not just any flower, but our State flower, the Showy Lady Slipper (Cypripedium reginae). 

The Munger Showy sprouting in the spring.
That September day in 2012, I was thinking about the Yellow Slippers (Cypripedium parviflorum) that I had been photographing along the Trail since about 2010, when I first started spending time on the Munger. I was worried that the flood might have washed away some of their habitat (they survived pretty well, as it turned out). 

Showy sprouts getting bigger.
I had been reading Welby Smith’s Native Orchids of Minnesota, so I knew something about the appearance of the foliage and the size of the Showy Slipper plants. I was hoping I might see a Showy someday, but I hadn’t expected to come across the remains of one on the Munger in September. I snapped a photo and began the long process of waiting until July of 2013 to see her in bloom.

The Munger Showy, July 2013, with a butterfly caught in her slipper.

Showy seed pods, visible in the winter.
Since then, I have been visiting and photographing this orchid at all stages of her life cycle and in all seasons. I have come to think of her as a friend. When I heard that her portion of the Munger Trail was going to be closed for resurfacing and reconstruction, I worried about her safety. 

Truck full of rescued Showys that Mr Diener helped save (note the reflection 
of Mr Diener in the side of the truck). Photo credit: Tom Diener.

So I contacted Martin Torgerson, the DNR Moose Lake Area Supervisor, to ask for permission to move her to Jay Cooke State Park, where Mr Diener works in the summer and where some other Showy Slippers grow. A couple days later, he put me in touch with Tyler Gangelhoff, the Assistant Manager of the Park, and he gave his permission for Mr Diener and me to transplant her. The Park Naturalist, Kristine Hiller, marked a spot for us near some of the other Showys at Jay Cooke, and Mr Diener and I then went about the business of planning the Rescue Operation. Mr Diener said Easter weekend seemed like an appropriate time for such an endeavor.

Diener's rescued Showys, blooming in the Park. They'll be the 
Munger Showy's companions.
Mr Diener already had some experience with rescuing the State flower. A couple years ago, he helped dig some up at a construction site along the Nemadji River and then re-planted them at the Park. Those Showys made the transition very nicely. 

On Saturday, then, Mr Diener and I met at the Becks Road trailhead and biked to the Slipper. Mr Diener had a trailer attached to his bike, perfect for transporting the flower and our lunch. Although the day was overcast, the rain held off until well after we finished the Operation. 

Mr Diener inspects the above-ground portion 
of the plant.
We arrived at the Slipper's home on the Trail, and Mr Diener began to dig. The ground was extremely rocky, which made getting her out of the earth much harder than I'd anticipated. I even broke off the tip of my garden trowel. I had brought along a small-but-serious shovel, which, combined with Mr Diener's strength, did the job nicely. 

Mr Diener did all the hard work--I just led him to the right 
spot and supplied the shovel! Note the ballast rocks around the 
edge of the hole.
The Munger Trail runs along an old railway line, and Mr Diener knows a lot about rocks and old railroads. He said all the rocks in the soil were track ballast for the old rail line

As we were digging up the Showy, lots of people passed by. I was expecting that someone would question us, and I had printed out Mr Gangelhoff's official statement of permission, just in case someone wanted to know what we were doing. But no one seemed to pay any attention to us, except one man walking his dog, but he came by before we started digging. Mr Diener told him we were testing out some camping equipment, and the man seemed to believe us, but Mr Diener felt guilty later about making up that story.
Mr Diener securing the Showy (in the gray tub) & the shovel 
on his nifty bike trailer. You can see, in the background, 
that we filled in the hole pretty well. Mr Diener assures me 
that his trailer will be available for other Orchid Rescue Team 
(ORT) Adventures, should the need arise.

Once we had the Showy loaded into Mr Diener's trailer, we biked all the way to Jay Cooke, where I put Mr Diener to work again, digging a hole at the designated spot (the ground was still somewhat frozen, which made his job difficult). Mr Gangelhoff met us there and watched as we put her back in the earth. I wish Kristine Hiller had been there, too, to see us add another Showy to the Park, but she was working at another State Park that day. 
Mr Diener digs a hole for the Slipper's new
home, in the spot chosen by Kris Hiller.

Mr Diener and I ate our lunch in the River Inn Interpretive Center and then biked back to our cars. I let Mr Diener go on ahead of me: he's not only a much, much faster and stronger biker than I am, but I also wanted to stop along the Trail on my way back to check on some Bloodroot that I hoped would be blooming (it was!). As I moseyed back along the Trail, I wondered how many colonies of our State flower are lost to construction projects...
Bloodroot blooming along
the Munger.

There must be other Trail users out there who loved and admired this magnificent orchid as they biked or jogged past her. I hope at least some of them will see this post and learn that their familiar friend was not destroyed in the construction, nor was she poached, as our wild orchids sometimes are, but rather she was moved to a safer house, where she can live with relatives. And she now has the best of neighbors, ones who will protect her, according to their stated mission
The Munger Showy with the sun shining right through her blossoms.
From now on, every time I pass her old spot along the Trail, I'll miss her presence, but I look forward to seeing her bloom in the Park this summer--long may she live there in comfort and health, multiplying in beauty, year after year.
Another portrait of my friend, taken in July of 2016, the last time she bloomed on the Munger Trail.

Update:  Mr Diener checked on our friend on May 13, and found that she had sprouted up out of the ground in her new home. He sent me this photo.
Photo by T. Diener. The Munger Showy sprouted in Jay Cooke State Park!
Taken May 13,  2017
With three stems coming up, she looks like she's well on her way.

(All photos, unless otherwise indicated, were taken by S. Nygaard with an iPhone 5 or 6s.)